Test Bank for Julien’s Primer of Drug Action 14th Edition Advokat


Test Bank for Julien’s Primer of Drug Action 14th Edition Advokat



Test Bank Julien’s Primer of Drug Action, 14th edition Claire D. Advokat


1. The process of __________ takes place during the metabolism of a drug.






2. The process of __________ takes place during the molecular breakdown of a drug.






3. __________ is determined by the quantity of drug that reaches its target.






4. __________ is the study of the movement of a drug through the body over time.






5. The study of how the body processes drugs is termed:






6. Pharmacokinetics is the study of:






7. Kinetics refers to:






8. In its simplest form, pharmacokinetics describes a drug’s:






9. The term kinetics implies _____ and time.






10. The main difference between the two anti-anxiety drugs, lorazepam (Ativan) and triazolam (Halcion), can best be described as:






11. Drugs administered sublingually (under the tongue) and drugs administered orally are absorbed mostly in the _____ and _______, respectively.






12. Enteral drug administration involves:






13. Which is NOT an parenteral route?






14. A suppository would be absorbed:






15. A drug inhaled is considered to be absorbed via the ____ route.






16. Which drug attribute increases the likelihood of drug absorption?






17. Which drug attributes increase the rate of absorption?






18. Passive diffusion usually occurs when molecules pass from an area of _____ concentration to an area of _____ concentration.






19. From the intestines, digested nutrients and drugs first flow into the _____ and then into the _____.






20. First-pass metabolism refers to a drug passing through the:






21. One substance capable of inhibiting enzymatic degradation in the liver and gastrointestinal tract is:






22. Rectal drug administration may be used in place of oral drug administration to avoid:






23. The main advantage of administering a drug through transdermal patches is:






24. The following are disadvantages of drug administration by injection EXCEPT:






25. With the exception of the mode employed with some gas anesthetics, the fastest mode of drug administration is:






26. The mode of drug administration that poses the most risk is:






27. Drawback(s) to intravenous injection, as opposed to other forms of administration, of drugs include all of the following EXCEPT:






28. The subcutaneous administration of a drug takes place:






29. The meninges protects the:






30. The middle layer of the meninges is the:






31. Intrathecal injections are administered via the:






32. Lumbar punctures are targeted in the:






33. Enzymes that degrade a drug in the gastrointestinal tract and liver decrease the amount of drug that reaches the circulation by a mechanism known as:






34. When administered by injection and inhalation, drugs enter the _____ and _____ side of the heart, respectively.






35. The entire blood volume circulates in the body about once every _____ seconds.






36. Ventricles are important for:






37. What function is NOT related to cerebral spinal fluid?






38. Which membrane does NOT affect drug distribution?






39. What are the two main differences between capillaries in the periphery and capillaries surrounding the brain?






40. A drug that can pass rapidly and easily through the capillary wall surrounding the brain must be:






41. Penicillin cannot be used to treat infections located in the central nervous system because:






42. Large molecules, such as glucose and vitamins, reach the brain through:






43. Iron is a large molecule reaching the brain by:






44. Why can’t steroids and beta blockers pass the blood–brain barrier?






45. The membranes that separate fetal blood from maternal blood:






46. The membranes that separate fetal blood from maternal blood are:






47. Drug cross the placental barrier through _____ with ______ soluble drugs crossing more readily.






48. The presence of the placental barrier means that drugs will be _____ in concentration when compared to concentrations in the maternal bloodstream.






49. All of the following EXCEPT __________ are considered secondary paths for drug elimination






50. Most of the products of body metabolism are excreted by the:






51. The majority of drugs leave the body in:






52. Jerri is being hired by a large multinational company. They are likely to request a sample of ______ to test for drug use because it is a convenient means of detecting drug metabolites.






53. Biotransformation is another term for:






54. P450 enzymes are part of:






55. Phase II reactions involve:






56. Phase I reactions involve:






57. “Biotransformation” is carried out by the _____ and usually makes a drug _____ soluble.






58. Biotransformation is carried out by the following organ:






59. The cytochrome P450 enzyme family in a hepatocyte:






60. Which of the following statements regarding biotransformation is TRUE?






61. Biotransformation is carried out by the following organ: _____. It usually involves making a drug _____ water soluble. The increased ability of this organ to carry out biotransformation after repeated exposure to a drug is termed _____ tolerance. The increased ability of this organ to biotransform drugs other than the one administered previously is termed _____.






62. Dave has a particularly efficient CYP2D6 enzyme system in his liver. Based on this information, one would predict that he would:






63. __________ factors has the potential to determine how someone will metabolize a drug.






64. The microbiome refers to:






65. Neuroactive substances affecting the microbiome are known as:






66. Which is NOT a function of the microbiome?






67. Which class of drugs are metabolized by CYP enzymes in the liver?






68. The _____ regulates the levels of most of the substances found in body fluids.






69. __________ are the functional units that make up the kidneys.






70. Nephrons consist of:






71. Once plasma is filtered through the kidneys, about _____ percent of the filtered plasma gets reabsorbed.






72. The initial decline of drug plasma concentration occurs rapidly due to:






73. The half-life of a drug _____ over time.






74. A drug is, for all intents and purposes, completely eliminated from the body in:






75. The time for the plasma level of a drug to fall by 50 percent is termed the:






76. The time to reach steady-state concentrations of a drug, that is, the level of drug achieved in the blood with repeated, regular-interval dosing, is:






77. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) involves measuring:






78. In therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), drug plasma concentrations correlate well with:






79. The goal of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is to obtain the optimal:






80. The increased ability of the liver to carry out “biotransformation” after prolonged exposure to a drug is termed _____ tolerance.






81. Pharmacodynamic tolerance occurs in the _____, while metabolic tolerance occurs in the _____.






82. During the process of behavioral drug tolerance, after repeated and frequent use of a drug in the same environment:






83. The reduction in the number or sensitivity of receptors in response to prolonged activation by a drug is known as:






84. The ability of liver enzymes to degrade a drug more efficiently in the continued presence of the drug is known as:






85. The ability of receptors in the brain to adapt to the continued presence of a drug is known as:






86. Once a person becomes physically dependent upon a drug:






87. Which statement is TRUE?




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