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Readings in Deviant Behavior 6th Edition Calhoun Conyers Test Bank

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Readings in Deviant Behavior 6th Edition Calhoun Conyers Test Bank Download

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ISBN-10: 0205695574

ISBN-13: 9780205695577 978-0205695577

Chapter 1
Images of Deviance
by
Stephen Pfohl
True – False
_____ 1.1 What is considered deviance, according to Pfohl in his article “Images of
Deviance,” is relative to time.
_____ 1.2 Pfohl asserts, in “Images of Deviance,” that individuals become deviant
only as a result of being in opposition to those whom they threaten.
_____ 1.3 In his article “Images of Deviance,” Pfohl proclaims that what is officially
labeled illegal or deviant has nothing to do with what society
economically values but rather with whether the thing is physically
harmful.
_____ 1.4 Deviance is always the flip side of the coin used to maintain social
control.
_____ 1.5 To illustrate how deviants are created, Pfohl in his article “Images of
Deviance” uses the writings of Ernest Hemingway.
_____ 1.6 According to Pfohl in his article “Images of Deviance,” the story of
deviance and social control is a battle story.
_____ 1.7 It appears from Pfohl’s article “Images of Deviance” that he would agree
deviance exists only in opposition to those whom the so-called deviants
threaten and those who have enough power to control the deviants.
_____ 1.8 According to Pfohl in his article “Images of Deviance,” deviants never
exist except in relation to those who attempt to control them.
_____ 1.9 Pfohl in his article “Images of Deviance” asserts that what is officially
labeled illegal or deviant has little to do with what is economically
valuable to society but mostly with what is physically harmful.
_____ 1.10 According to Pfohl in his article “Images of Deviance,” sexist
heterosexuals are as likely to be labeled deviant as are gay, lesbian, or
bisexual lovers who caress one another with affection.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
1
Multiple Choice
1.11 To illustrate how deviants are created, Pfohl in his article “Images of Deviance” uses the
writings from which of the following literary greats.
a. Edgar Allen Poe
b. Mark Twain
c. Ernest Hemingway
d. John Steinbeck
1.12 According to Pfohl in his article “Images of Deviance,” losers in the battle story of
deviance and social control may:
a. be viewed as living outside the boundaries of conventional life
b. be seen by others as evil, sleazy, dirty, or dangerous
c. come to see themselves as deviants
d. all of the above
1.13 According to Pfohl in his article “Images of Deviance,” winners:
a. are trapped within the vision of others
b. obtain the privilege of organizing social life as they see fit
c. seek support from the losers
d. all of the above
1.14 When viewing the 1991 Gulf War between Iraq and the United States, according to Pfohl
in his article “Images of Deviance,” Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was portrayed as:
a. Hitler-like character bent on world domination
b. an innocent victim in the conflict
c. Stalin of the 1990s
d. all of the above
1.15 When viewing the 1991 Gulf War between Iraq and the United States, according to Pfohl
in his article “Images of Deviance,” Iraq felt that the attack by the United States was actually
intended to:
a. make President Hussein an American ally
b. keep the price of oil from going up
c. both A&B above
d. none of the above
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
2
Short-Answer Essay
1.16 Pfohl asserts in his article “Images of Deviance” that the story of deviance and social
control is a battle story. What arguments does he present which would allow one to arrive at this
conclusion?
1.17 How does Pfohl in his article “hnages of Deviance” use Mark Twain’s parable “The War
Prayer” to explain the 1991 Gulf War between Iraq and the United States?
1.18 What does Pfohl mean in his article “Images of Deviance,” when he asserts that
“deviance is always the flip side of the coin used to maintain social control?”
1.19 What are some of the consequences of being labeled deviant as discussed by Pfohl in his
article “Images of Deviance”?
1.20 Why do you think that Pfohl in his article “Images of Deviance” suggests that corporate
criminals are less likely than homosexuals to be labeled deviant?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
3
Chapter 2
Defining Deviancy Down
by
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
True – False
_____ 2.1 According to Moynihan in his article “Defining Deviancy Down,” crime is
a more or less continuous subject of political pronouncement.
_____ 2.2 According to Moynihan in his “Defining Deviancy Down” article, we are
getting used to a lot of behavior that is not good for us.
_____ 2.3 In his article “Defining Deviancy Down,” Moynihan argues that social
scientists are on the lookout for poor fellows getting a bum rap.
_____ 2.4 According to Moynihan in his article “Defining Deviancy Down,” we
have been re-defining deviance so as to exempt much conduct previously
stigmatized.
_____ 2.5 According to Moynihan in his article “Defining Deviancy Down,”
members of U.S. Congress do NOT compete with one another thinking up
new offenses to which the death penalty can be applied.
_____ 2.6 Moynihan in his article “Defining Deviancy Down”would agree that the
number of people a community can afford to label as deviants is likely to
remain about the same over time.
_____ 2.7 According to Moynihan’s article “Defining Deviancy Down,” today’s
normalization of deviance reflects the popular acceptance of the
psychological notion of “regret.”
_____ 2.8 According to Moynihan in his article “Defining Deviancy Down,”
conservatives generally support the redefinition of deviance that weakens
societal standards.
_____ 2.9 According to Moynihan in his article “Defining Deviancy Down,” a
dramatic increase in single-parent families would lead to a dramatic
increase in crime.
_____ 2.10 According to his article “Defining Deviancy Down,” Moynihan suggests
that there is a manifest decline of the American civic order.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
4
Multiple Choice
2.11 Which of the following, according to Moynihan in his “Defining Deviancy Down”
article,
is an example of normalizing crime?
a. Crime reporting vocabulary
b. Stricter enforcement
c. fairer judges
d. None of the above
2.12 According to Moynihan, in his article “Defining Deviancy Down”, which of the
following sociologists would see crime as normal:
a. Karl Marx
b. Edwin Lemert
c. Ken Braithwaite
d. Emile Durkheim
2.13 Which of the following sociologists wrote Wayward Puritans:
a. Karl Marx
b. Kai I. Erikson
c. Robert Sheak
d. Emile Durkheim
2.14 According to Moynihan in his article “Defining Deviancy Down,” one of the significant
events during Prohibition that shocked the nation was:
a. St. Valentine’s Day Massacre
b. the high rate of unemployment
c. the beginning of World War II
d. none of the above
2.15 According to Moynihan in his article “Defining Deviancy Down,” which of the following
psychological techniques accounts for our normalization of deviance
a. acceptance
b. rejection
c. denial
d. none of the above
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
5
Short-Answer Essay
2.16 What does Moynihan in the “Defining Deviance Down” article mean when he asserts
that “if crime level has been normalized?”
2.17 Discuss the major thesis of the Moynihan article “Defining Deviance Down.” Be sure to
include the arguments he presents in support of this thesis.
2.18 How does Moynihan in his “Defining Deviancy Down” article use the St. Valentine’s
Day Massacre to illustrate our society’s past reluctance to define deviance down?
2.19 Do you agree or disagree with Moynihan’s argument in his article “Defining Deviancy
Down” that crime is becoming more normalized in American society? Cite specific examples to
support your stance.
2.20 Based on your reading of Moynihan’s article “Defining Deviancy Down,” how do you
feel he would respond to the Congress’ recent passage of the “three strikes and you are out”
legislation? Is the new law tough enough on criminals?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
6
Chapter 3
Strain Theory
by
Robert Merton

True-False
_____ 3.1 Merton’s strain theory is primarily designed to identify the incidence of
deviant behavior in our society and not group variations in the rates of
deviant behavior.

_____ 3.2 Merton, in his strain theory, believes that the choice of expedients for
striving toward cultural goals is limited by institutionalized means.

_____ 3.3 Merton’s strain theory suggests that the prostitute is a “retreatist.”

_____ 3.4 Merton’s strain theory suggests that the person who cheats on his income
tax returns is a “ritualist.”

_____ 3.5 Merton’s strain theory suggests that the “conformist” is the least
common type of individuals in American society.

_____ 3.6 Merton’s strain theory suggests that the drug addict is a “retreatist.”

_____ 3.7 According to Merton’s strain theory, students who cheat on their
examination to increase their chances for admittance to law school
would be classified as innovators.

_____ 3.8 According to his strain theory, Merton would agree that everyone
in American society has the same chances of getting ahead in our
society.

_____ 3.9 Merton’s strain theory ignores the fact that individuals may
simultaneously use several of the modes of adaptation presented in the
theory.

_____ 3.10 According to Merton’s strain theory, the legitimate means of getting ahead
in American society are equally distributed throughout the social system.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
7
Multiple Choice
3.11 The source of deviance, according to Merton, rests within:
a. the individual
b. the social structure
c. the friends one keeps
d. the family

3.12 According to Merton’s strain theory, which of the following accepts the cultural goals
and
institutionalized means of achieving those goals?
a. rebel
b. conformist
c. ritualist
d. innovator

3.13 Individuals who work at a legitimate daily job yet cheat on their income tax returns is an
example of which type of person?
a. conformist
b. innovator
c. ritualist
d. retreatist

3.14 According to Merton’s strain theory, the most commonly used form of adaptation is:
a. innovation
b. rebellion
c. conformity
d. retreatism

3.15 Lowering one’s level of aspiration permanently would be found in which type of
adaptation according to Merton’s strain theory?
a. retreatism
b. ritualism
c. conformity
d. innovation

3.16 Which type of adaptation, according to Merton’s strain theory, is probably the least
common?
a. conformity
b. innovation
c. ritualism
d. retreatism
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
8
3.17 Which of these people, according to Merton’s strain theory, is in society but not of it?
a. conformist
b. retreatist
c. innovator
d. rebel

3.18 According to Merton’s strain theory, individuals who neither accept nor reject society’s
goals and means but rather substitute them are:
a. rebels
b. conformists
c. innovators
d. ritualists
Short-Answer Essay
3.19 Discuss and give an example of each of Merton’s modes of adaptation.

3.20 How would you use Merton’s strain theory to explain the relatively high crime rate in the
United States?

3.21 What is it about Merton’s strain theory that would justify the concept “strain”? In other
words, why is his theory called strain theory?

3.22 Cite examples where an individual could use more than one of the adaptation types
presented in Merton’s strain theory.

3.23.1 What do you consider to be some of the weaknesses associated with Merton’s strain
theory?

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